...in a pot, you can grow a lot! (eh, not sure I can really pull off Seuss...)
|L to R: Beefsteak tomatoes, Sungold tomatoes, Basil, Mint, Catnip|
While I am not sure that you can grow any plant in a pot, my experience has been that certain crops are super-easy to grow in containers. Namely - tomatoes, basil, catnip, and mint (more about them individually at a later date). The only thing about container growing that is slightly higher-maintenance is that you have to be very mindful of watering them. At the time of watering, anything extra will drain through the holes of your pot. The positive is that it's pretty hard to over-water a plant in a pot; the negative is that they can grow thirsty pretty quickly.
You can go to any garden center or home improvement store and buy seedlings, a pot, and a bag of potting soil (and some wooden stakes if you're growing tomatoes). Make sure you get potting soil (not to be confused with topsoil or garden soil). Because your pots won't have the same nutrients as dirt in the ground (provided by helpful insects, decomposing plants, etc.), you need to buy the right kind of soil that will supply these nutrients. But beyond that, I'll be honest - I've done nothing. I've never fertilized my container plants or really done anything but water them and occasionally prune the suckers from the tomatoes.
Above is a picture of this year's pot crew - they are all growing on our deck. A third member of the tomato family has found a loving home on a windowsill in Columbus and is thriving. It's not too late to get your own! I suspect that if you've never tried this, and grow even one successfully this summer, you may be hooked...